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India to launch NVS-01 satellite on GSLV-F12 mission.

The Satellite is a part of the Indian navigation constellation (NavIC) program.

NVS-01 fairing encapsulation [ISRO]

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) will launch the GSLV-F12/NVS-01 mission on Monday, May 29, 2023 at 10:42 local time (05:12 UTC) from the second launch pad on Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC-SHAR) in Sriharikota. This Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) mission is designed to place the navigation satellite NVS-01, weighing about 5,000 pounds (2232 kg), into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. Subsequent lift maneuvers will be used to bring the satellite into the intended orbit.

NVS-01 Launch Infographics

GSLV-F12 is the 15th flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and the 9th flight with Indigenous Cryo stage. This is the 6th operational flight of GSLV with indigenous Cryogenic stage. The configuration of GSLV-F12 Payload Fairing is 4 m diameter Ogive version.


The GSLV-F12/NVS-01 mission is ISRO's fourth launch this year – following the launch of the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) in February, the LVM3 M3/OneWeb India-2 mission in March and the PSLV-C55/TeLEOS -2 in April. After the flight failure of the GSLV Mk2 F10, the failure analysis committee recommended improvements to increase the robustness of the cryogenic upper stage for future missions. The rocket with the necessary modifications to the upper stage was scheduled to be ready in the third quarter of 2022, which actually happened.

CUS-15 upper stage [ISRO]

The GSLV-F12 will feature a modified CUS-15 cryogenic upper stage. This upgraded version incorporates the Active Pressurization system for the CUS and Introduction of CUSCE V2. The Active Pressurization method plays a crucial role in stabilizing the pressure within the remaining ullage volume of the tanks through pumping.

One notable enhancement is the inclusion of CUSCE V2, which introduces a new approach to maintain pressure in the leftover ullage volume. This is achieved by applying pressure using a helium gas bottle, further optimizing the performance and efficiency of the upper stage.


NVS-01 is the first in the second-generation navigation satellite series which will ensure

continuity of legacy NavlC services, previously known as Indian Regional Navigation satellite System (IRNSS) and also provide new service in L1 band. NVS-01 satellite is built around the standard 1-2K Bus and is compatible with GSLV. It has a lift-off mass of approximately 2232 kg. There are two major instruments installed on second gen NVS series:

Navigation Payloads

The navigation payload operates in L1, L5, and S bands and employs a Tri-band antenna.

The heart of the navigation payload is the Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS),

the atomic clock which acts as a stable frequency reference for the navigation payload.

Ranging Payload

The ranging payload consists of CxC transponder used for two-way CDMA ranging to facilitate precise orbit determination.


The satellite is powered by two solar arrays, capable of generating power up to 2.4 kW and a Lithium-ion battery supporting payload and bus load during eclipse. The satellite employs both passive and active thermal management, unified bi-propellant propulsion system and three-axis body stabilised zero momentum system with reaction wheels.

The mission life of NVS-01 is expected to be better than 12 years. As compared to the first generation satellite series, the second-generation satellite series includes L1 Navigation

band and encompasses indigenously developed Rubidium atomic clock. The L1 navigation band is popular for providing PNT (Position, Navigation and Timing) services for civilian users and for interoperability with other GNSS signals. The space-qualified Rubidium atomic

clock, indigenously developed by Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad is an important technology which only a handful of countries possess.

Applications of NavIC Program

NavIC, the Navigation with Indian Constellation, serves as a vital system with a wide range of applications. Its primary functions encompass terrestrial, aerial, and maritime navigation, providing accurate positioning and guidance. Additionally, NavIC plays a crucial role in precision agriculture, enabling farmers to optimize their operations based on precise location data. Geodetic surveying also benefits from NavIC's capabilities, facilitating accurate measurements and mapping.

In terms of emergency services, NavIC enhances response capabilities by providing accurate location information during critical situations. Fleet management systems utilize NavIC for efficient tracking and logistics optimization. Moreover, NavIC enables location-based services on mobile devices, empowering users with real-time navigation and customized information based on their geographic position.

The system's orbit determination capabilities are valuable for satellite missions, contributing to precise positioning and orbital calculations. NavIC supports marine fisheries by aiding in navigation, ensuring safe and efficient fishing operations. Additionally, NavIC plays a role in providing timing services for financial institutions, power grids, and government agencies, ensuring synchronized and accurate timekeeping.

The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has opened up new opportunities, and NavIC's capabilities extend to IoT-based applications, enabling location-based tracking and services. Finally, NavIC finds strategic applications in various domains, including defense and security, where accurate positioning and navigation are of utmost importance.

Overall, NavIC's versatility and accuracy make it an indispensable tool across numerous sectors, revolutionizing navigation and positioning services in India and beyond.


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